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Websites are able to use TLS to secure all communications between their servers and web browsers.The TLS protocol aims primarily to provide privacy and data integrity between two communicating computer applications.
TLS and SSL do not fit neatly into any single layer of the OSI model or the TCP/IP model.
Another mechanism is for the client to make a protocol-specific request to the server to switch the connection to TLS; for example, by making a STARTTLS request when using the mail and news protocols.
Once the client and server have agreed to use TLS, they negotiate a stateful connection by using a handshaking procedure.
However, applications generally use TLS as if it were a transport layer, Early research efforts towards transport layer security included the Secure Network Programming (SNP) application programming interface (API), which in 1993 explored the approach of having a secure transport layer API closely resembling Berkeley sockets, to facilitate retrofitting pre-existing network applications with security measures.
Version 1.0 was never publicly released because of serious security flaws in the protocol; version 2.0, released in February 1995, contained a number of security flaws which necessitated the design of version 3.0.Released in 1996, SSL version 3.0 represented a complete redesign of the protocol produced by Paul Kocher working with Netscape engineers Phil Karlton and Alan Freier, with a reference implementation by Christopher Allen and Tim Dierks of Consensus Development. The 1996 draft of SSL 3.0 was published by IETF as a historical document in RFC 6101.